“As our society becomes more aware of the prospects of using plants and microorganisms for the production of various resource materials and for bioprocessing applications,”
“the need for fundamental biological research dealing with such organisms becomes more urgent.”
“One of the crucial ingredients to this effort is the study of the basic biology of organisms.
Such knowledge will afford the advantage of developing procedures to the benefit of people and their society.”
“This information is crucial to ensure that the technologies that emerge not only serve the needs of society but do so without unexpected risks to both the health of people and the environment in which they live.”
Based on this information, one would expect studies on Dictyostelium discoideum to bring some benefit to humankind.
Instead, this amoeba which used to thrive on dung piles now lives in the skin of human beings.
Many mutations had to be created to change a forest floor living organism which produces fibres as the disease agent against innocent victims.
D. Discoideum is a species of soil-living amoeba belonging to the phylum Mycetozoa, a group of slime moulds.
The three groups are dictyostelid, myxogastrid, and protostylid.
Dictyostelium discoideum live most of their lives in the free-living vegetative state.
They eat bacteria (E.Coli) on dead rotting debris.
In the vegetative state, cell division occurs by mitosis, dividing one cell into two.
When food runs out, the colony of cells go into the social cycle or the SEXUAL cycle.
In the social cycle, a colony of 10,000 – 100,000 single cells aggregate in a social mass.
One-celled amoebas stream together into one large slug which transforms into a fruiting body with spores.
The SEXUAL cycle takes place under conditions of high humidity & darkness during which two cells of opposite mating types fuse.
Myxamoebae (single cells) are transformed into cells with semirigid walls (endocytosis).
The giant cell attracts neighbouring cells (via cAMP and sex pheromones), then engulfs them by phagocytosis.
During the maturation of the giant cell, the engulfed cells (endocytosis) are digested.
The giant cell (macrocyst) is protected by a three-layer coat composed of cellulose and different sets of glycoproteins.
The outer spore coat contains a galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine polysaccharide (GPS).
After a period of dormancy, the single large protoplast can be induced to germinate by placing it in the light at low temp.
The macrocyst releases diploid amoebae that divide by meiosis & give rise to vegetative amoeba.
“Visualization of Actin Fibers Associated with the Cell Membrane in Amoebae of Dictyostelium Discoideum”. discoideum’s short life cycle (18-24 hrs) makes it a model to study genetic, cellular and biochemical processes.
Fibres were also found in association with nuclei.
Numerous filaments were found associated with this membrane surface and extending into the filopodia.
The actin fibres were depolymerized with potassium iodide.
“Often a darkly stained bundle of filaments encircled the main body of the cell.
The width of the individual filaments was about 8 nm which is appropriate for actin filaments.
These fibres were confirmed as actin-based on its ability to interact with myosin, heavy meromyosin and S1 to form “arrowhead” complexes.
Hexagonal arrays were also found which suggest these structures might be a storage form of tubulin.
A similar structure was found in a Morgellon’s victim associated with D. discoideum.
Morgellons victims see the life cycle of D. discoideum in their skin. Recombinant DNA technology has mutated this species to the point that it is almost unrecognizable.
“D. discoideum-A promising expression system for the production of Eukaryotic proteins”
R. Arya, A. Bhattacharya, et al.
Ranbaxy labs, Haryana, India
The single-celled slime mould, D. discoideum has emerged as a promising eukaryotic host for the expression of a variety of heterologous recombinant eukaryotic proteins.”
Recombinant DNA is a form of artificial DNA created by combining two or more sequences that would not normally occur together.
The recombinant protein is a protein that derived from recombinant DNA.
Four expression systems, bacterial, yeast, baculovirus-mediated insect cell, & mammalian, are widely used for the overproduction of biochemical enzymes and therapeutic proteins for the treatment of cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer.
Expression systems are evaluated for structure (post-translational modifications), the final use of the protein required and the cost and quality.
D. discoideum is easy to culture, inexpensive and does not require serum or other growth factors. Cell lines can be preserved in liquid nitrogen and can remain viable on silica gel for years and can revive in a few hours.
The identification of at least 33 genes orthologous to human disease genes in Dd genome has provided an opportunity to investigate molecular mechanisms underlying human disease.
In the past 10 years or so, considerable advances have been made in developing Dd as a model system for pathogenesis, biomedical research, and new drug discovery research,
The bacterial, yeast, insect cell hosts have all been used in the overproduction of protein fibres in Morgellons.
Dd has been engineered to overproduce pathogenic protein fibres.
Read “Morgellons Definitive Cure Post” For A Very Helpful Information On How You Can Recover From Morgellons.